Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR)
(historically named as “Cold Fusion”)
Introduction and Overview
In 1989, the subject was announced with great fanfare, to the chagrin of many people in the science community. However, the significant claim of its discoverers, Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons, excess heat without harmful neutron emissions or strong gamma radiation, involving electrochemical cells using heavy water and palladium, has held strong.
In recent years, LENR, within the field of condensed matter nuclear science, has begun to attract widespread attention and is regarded as a potential alternative and renewable energy source to confront climate change and energy scarcity. The aim of the research is to collect experimental findings for LENR in order to present reasonable explanations and a conclusive theoretical and practical working model.
The goal of the field is directed toward the fabrication of LENR devices with unique commercial potential demonstrating an alternative energy source that does not produce greenhouse gases, long-lived radiation or strong prompt radiation. The idea of LENR has led to endless discussions about the kinetic impossibility of intense nuclear reactions with high coulomb barrier potential. However, recent theoretical work may soon shed light on this mystery.
Understanding this process is one of the most challenging and perhaps important issues in the scientific world. This web site includes previously unpublished studies, new and controversial theories to approach LENR with access to new sources and experimental results. It offers insight into this controversial subject and will help the audience re-evaluate their perspective on LENR for a possible alternative energy source.
It is obvious that cold fusion is not similar to thermonuclear hot fusion processes. An appreciable number of available documents report on various methods by which nuclear reaction is produced and controlled at normal temperatures. The experimental methods to achieve this goal range from the use of gunpowder and a laser technique to attempt to electrochemically induce nuclear fusion and fission with significant excess heat within the palladium metal lattice exposed to heavy water solutions.
Palladium is very well known to absorb large quantities of hydrogen/deuterium into the bulk metal where the nuclei, electrochemically inserted, occupy interstitial octahedral/tetrahedral sites dependant on the specific palladium–hydride phase. Using this approach, Martin Fleischmann raised the idea of electrochemically inserting deuterium into bulk palladium to a large extent, hoping to increase the probability of deuterium nuclei reacting and colliding efficiently. Based on this idea, in 1989 in Salt Lake City, Utah, Martin Fleischmann together with his colleague Stanley Pons designed an experiment involving an electrochemical cell using a heavy water solution with the corresponding electrolyte and palladium as the electrode in order to generate nuclear fusion within the metal lattice. The energetic output generated after a long-term electrolysis—over a couple of days—was found to be significant. From this, Fleischmann concluded that nuclear fusion of deuterium nuclei inside the bulk palladium metal had occurred.
Because this reaction, initially named “cold fusion”, seemed to offer an opportunity to solve energy problems in the future, it instantly raised widespread attention. As a result, many very quickly came to regard “cold fusion” as one of the most important topics confronting the scientific community. However, interest in the subject declined just as rapidly because of the phenomenon’s lack of reproducibility.
This attitude was bolstered by the common opinion, based on conventional physics, that deuterons are very unlikely to collide efficiently at room temperature because of the enormous amount of energetic input needed to overcome the coulomb activation barrier. As a result, the scientific community generally dropped this subject, often heaping scorn on the remaining scientists who expressed an interest in the subject and who continued with their experiments.
The few scientists left in this field have worked constantly over 20 years to replicate the Pons–Fleischmann experiment, to determine and evaluate the experimental parameters that may play a significant role in this process, and to give a plausible theoretical explanation for the results. Given their negligible budgets, the work they have done and the understanding they have acquired of the “cold fusion” process is especially impressive when compared with the standard set by the results obtained by thousands of generously funded scientists working in the “hot fusion” field.
Nanotechnology and Kinetics
Understanding the palladium – hydrogen/deuterium electrochemistry is, to our mind, the crucial step to approach low energy nuclear reactions within the metal lattice. The electrochemical features of the palladium – hydride system are unique, and in profoundly studying these features we may get deep insight regarding the kinetic aspect of the nuclei penetrating into the bulk metal and regarding the H/Pd loading characteristics necessary to be considered. With the nanotechnology that came up more than a decade ago we were able to fabricate palladium on a nanoscale with a continuous pore distribution of nanometer sized dimensions, and this gives rise for an electrochemical behaviour, no one would obtain using ordinary plain palladium films, that clearly distinguishes between adsorption and absorption characteristics and that provides much better chance to determine and control the parameters responsible for nuclear reactions of deuterons inside the metal lattice.
Electrochemical deposition of metals from hexagonal lyotropic liquid crystalline phases produces metal films with unique ordered nanostructure in which the cylindrical pores running through the film are arranged in hexagonal arrays. With the use of nanotechnology we are able to resolve the hydrogen region of metals clearly in the cyclic voltammetry. The permeation of hydrogen and deuterium into the metal lattice occurs with fast kinetics without passing through the adsorbed state in the presence of adhered surface species. From all the results obtained, this kinetic aspect is, to our mind, the key issue to achieve nuclear reactions inside the palladium metal lattice.
Aim of Project
The emphasis is directed towards the fabrication of LENR devices with unique commercial potential to demonstrate the power of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (“cold fusion”) as one of the alternative energy sources.
First target in this process is to overcome the lack of reproducibility to generate nuclear reactions. Unambiguous proof for nuclear reactions/transmutation is required after carrying out long term electrolysis in a deuterium containing solution.
This means to give evidence for:
- Excess heat
- Tritium and neutron emission
- Helium production
- Nuclear transmutation of the host metal
We are in need to give reasonable explanations for the expected experimental behaviour, summarising the facts to a conclusive theory that appears to be rounded up and unambiguous. Final aim is the design and low cost manufacture of LENR devices to provide energy sustainability in the future.
Persistent reproducibility of results to evidence nuclear reactions at room temperature is not easy to obtain, and it requires hard work to fully resolve the problems associated with the special preparation of the metal electrode, the loading of heavy water and the turning on of excess heat. However, the lack of reproducibility does not necessarily mean that the experiment is wrong and the idea stupid. If one experiment gives evidence for LENR (“cold fusion”) and the other one not, it means that LENR exists but still, running on the basis of parameters that are out of focus and control.
Low cost manufacture
There is an uncountable number of papers showing extensive studies of LENR effects on palladium as the electrode commonly used in LENR research. Once LENR will become good and reliable enough to be regarded as one of the options in providing energy to private households, industries, automobiles etc, running the economy on the basis of cost - intensive palladium is at high risk and, for a long term perspective, almost impossible. Therefore, there is no denying the fact that the question of how to solve the energy problem worldwide still remains, and this brings us to the point at which it is convenient to mention the possibility of LENR with the use of nickel (studies have shown LENR effects on nickel) that is much cheaper than palladium and, hence, more likely to be considered as the metal on which to run the economy in the future worldwide.
Message to Address Scientists all over the World
“When a new truth enters the world,
the first stage of reaction to it is ridicule,
the second stage is violent opposition,
and in the third stage
that truth comes to be regarded as
self – evident.”
The German philosopher Arthur Schopenhaurer
(1788 – 1860)
From all the results obtained in uncountable numerous reports, and basically summarised in “Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Sourcebook”, American Chemical Society Symposium Series Book, printed by Oxford University Press, LENR, historically named as “cold fusion”, is a real phenomenon so that, if further and massive work carried out to investigate this issue deeply, the idea, initially raised by Fleischmann and Pons, to electrochemically induce nuclear fusion within the metal lattice at normal temperature to the use of a cheaply available and widely extended energy source, could become true. In view of the progressively enhanced energy crisis that is mainly reasoned by the enormous request for energy due to the largely growing population, the running out and reduced quantities of fossil fuels available in the near future and the political instability of countries providing the fuel, the need to find an alternative energy source is more urgent than ever before. If it turns out lately that LENR (“cold fusion”) is one of the alternative energy sources that to investigate scientists in most part ignored, in what respect will people evaluate science by the end of this century when it becomes clear to everyone that, due to widespread ignorant behaviour, science has failed to complete the mission in finding an adequate energy source as alternative to fossil fuels?
“In regard to cold fusion
it would be advisable for the scientific community
to brace itself for the fallout
that will be coming soon
when the public starts to become aware
that the scientific community was engaging
in an act of gross self deception back in 1989”
Brian Josephson, Nobel prize for physics, 1973
The Rebirth of Cold Fusion
Steven B. Krivit and Nadine Winocur, Psy. D.
Pacific Oaks Press 2004
The longer we wait, the more painful it will become. In this period of time through which the society worldwide on a large scale changes more drastically than ever before, the search for a cheaply available clean energy source, with which to provide energy to everyone on this planet and so to contribute to an overall peaceful living and togetherness, becomes highly significant; and in this context, to consider all the options available, we must include LENR as research topic to be established at Chemistry and Physics Departments at Universities everywhere.
LENR does not fit into current scientific understanding and perspective as the acceptance of experimental results evidencing nuclear fusion would necessarily mean to question the conventional physics, and this, for sure, is the most striking point. To consider deuterium to react and collide efficiently at room temperature with the release of excess heat would mean science to re evaluate, to throw away conventions but also to make a new start based on a different fundamental perspective.
To every scientist worldwide, this is the message we want to come across with, to overcome the prejudices, to realise our duties that we have to follow as scientists, and our duty is to find the truth. Truth is not what we want truth to be like. LENR seems to be the truth we need to discover, therefore it’s time to start.
“You cannot solve a problem
based on a way of thinking that
from its characteristic features
initially created this problem.”